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Rheology of High-Interface Systems

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bullet_blue.GIF (262 bytes)  Date and Location
bullet_blue.GIF (262 bytes)  Instructors
bullet_blue.GIF (262 bytes)  Course Description
bullet_blue.GIF (262 bytes)  Short Course Registration
bullet_blue.GIF (262 bytes)  Lodging Accommodations

Date and Location

Rheology of High-Interface Systems (a two-day course)
    October 7 and 8, 2006 (Saturday and Sunday)

All classes will begin at 8:30 AM at the Holiday Inn By the Bay in Portland, Maine.

The short courses are held in conjunction with the 78th Annual Meeting of The Society of Rheology (October 8-12, 2006)

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     Gerald G. Fuller
Department of Chemical Engineering
Stanford University
E-mail: ggf@stanford.edu
     Jan Vermant
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Leuven

E-mail: jan.vermant@cit.kuleuven.be
  Andy Kraynik
Sandia Laboratories
E-mail: amkrayn@sandia.gov

Instructor Biosketches

Gerald G. Fuller is Professor of Chemical Engineering at Stanford University. Since joining Stanford in 1980 he has conducted research in the areas of optical rheometry and interfacial rheometry. He has co-authored 190 papers including the book “Optical Rheometry” published by Oxford University Press. He has served as the President of the Society of Rheology and was awarded the Bingham Medal from the Society in 1997. In 2005 he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering.

Jan Vermant is Professor of Chemical Engineering at the K. U. Leuven in Belgium. His research focuses on bulk and interfacial rheology and relations to flow-induced structures in complex fluids and interfaces, particularly for colloidal dispersions. He is a recipient of a Dupont Young Faculty Award (2002-2004).

Andy Kraynik is a technical staff member at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Since joining Sandia in 1976 he has been involved in research on liquid and solid foams with emphasis on a microrheological point of view. He is currently the President of the Society of Rheology and received the Distinguished Service Award in 2001.

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Course Description

This two-day short course is aimed at systems where the rheology and structure are dominated by the presence of high degrees of fluid interface. Common examples include foams, emulsions, and blends. Further cases come from biology where the behavior of phospholipid monolayers and bilayers control the mechanical response of lung surfactants, cells, and vesicles.

Course Outline

Saturday Morning (all instructors)
      The syllabus begins with a presentation of capillarity and wetting. The concepts of surface tension, wetting, contact angles, and capillary forces are discussed. The Young-Laplace equations are developed and the stresses imposed by curved interfaces are predicted. Marangoni stresses arising from surface tension gradients are described. The molecular structure of surfactants, amphiphilic polymers, and proteins are described and their manner of attachment to fluid interfaces is explained. The attachment of colloidal particles to interfaces is also described. The phase behavior of complex fluid interfaces is explored along with the techniques to measure them. These include Langmuir troughs and Wilhelmy balances, Brewster angle and fluorescence microscopies, pendant drop, and du Nouy tensiometers.
Saturday Afternoon (Kraynik)
  Foams are complex fluids in which gas bubbles are dispersed in a small amount of liquid. Applications include foods and beverages, froth flotation, petroleum production, fire fighting, and polymer foam processing. Foams exhibit a wide range of rheological properties (shear modulus, yield stress, non-Newtonian shear viscosity, slip at the wall, and expansion viscosity) that strongly depend on their microstructure (cell size and liquid fraction), which can evolve by various mechanisms (foam expansion, diffusive coarsening, and foam drainage). Techniques for characterizing foam structure and measuring foam rheology will be reviewed. Models of foam structure ranging in complexity from the regular honeycomb in two dimensions to random polydisperse foams in three dimensions will be discussed. The connection between macroscopic foam properties and cell-level structure and flow mechanisms will be illustrated with many examples.
Sunday Morning (Fuller)
  The rheology of emulsions and blends depends on the interfaces (composition, deformation and orientation) that divide the dispersed and continuous liquid phases. Morphological processes, such as deformation, different types of break-up and coalescence will cause the interfacial contributions to the rheological behavior to depend on the flow conditions and history. The base case of immiscible mixtures with Newtonian components will be reviewed first. The evolution of the rheological properties in combination with in-situ observations of the microstructure will be compared to the predictions of continuum models. The effects of a presence of interfacial agents and the role of their interfacial rheology will subsequently be addressed. Both systems compatibilized by surfactants and block-copolymers, as well as particle stabilized systems (Pickering systems) will be addressed. It will be discussed how the morphological processes which control the rheological properties are altered by the presence of interfacial agents.
Second Afternoon (Vermant)
  In many applications, the interfaces themselves respond nonlinearly to deformation and flow. The non-Newtonian rheology of these two-dimensional systems is a consequence of strong interactions and cooperative behavior of molecular amphiphiles and particles residing at the interface. In analogy to their bulk counterparts, two-dimensional polymer melts, gels, liquid crystals, and suspensions can assemble at fluid interfaces and strongly affect the stability and bulk rheology of emulsions, foams, and blends. Interfacial rheology plays an important role in controlling coalescence and Oswalt ripening. The rheology of important classes of complex fluid interfaces is discussed and measurement techniques are discussed. These include interfacial shear and dilatational rheometry and the use of flow-microscopies to image nonlinear interfacial flow responses.

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Short Course Registration

Short course registration includes a complete set of course notes. Registration fees are in U.S. dollars. Payment can be made online with MasterCard, Visa, Discover, or American Express.

Registration Fee for Through 9/8/06 After 9/8/06
     Member $500 $600
(includes membership for 2007)
$555 $655
   Student Member $300 $375
   Student Non-Member*
(includes student membership for 2007)
$325 $400

*Non-members who are registering to attend the 78th Annual Meeting may register for the short course at the member rates.

bullet_blue.GIF (262 bytes)  Register by Mail (pay with check)
bullet_blue.GIF (262 bytes)  Register Online (pay with credit card)

Cancellations for the short course received in writing (The Society of Rheology 78th Annual Meeting, c/o Albert Co, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5737, USA) by September 8, 2006 will be refunded minus a $30 administrative charge. Cancellations after September 8, 2006 will only be refunded if the course is overbooked and the seat is refilled (again, subject to a $30.00 administrative charge). Each class is limited to 40 students.

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Questions can be directed to Professor Michael J. Solomon, University of Michigan, current chair of the SOR Education Committee, at mjsolo@umich.edu.

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Updated 14 February 2010